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The considerations for dog breeding can be summarized as follows:

by len king on Jun 04, 2024

Choosing the Optimal Breeding Age:
Male dogs are generally recommended to start breeding after one year of age.
Female dogs' breeding age depends on their size and breed. Generally, small dogs mature earlier, possibly between 6-8 months, but the best breeding age is recommended to be after the second heat cycle, 
approximately after one year. Large dogs mature later, usually around 10-12 months, and early breeding should also be avoided.

Estrus and Breeding:
Female dogs' estrus period is typically in spring (March to May) and autumn (September to November). The main symptoms of estrus include excitement, agitation, louder voice, bright eyes, swollen and reddened vulva, and bloody mucus discharge.
The best time for breeding is 2-3 days after the female dog's estrus, when the vulva secretions change from red to pale or colorless, and she is receptive to the male dog's mounting.
The mating process usually lasts 15 to 25 minutes, and natural mating is recommended, with artificial assistance if needed. After mating, the male and female dogs should be allowed to rest for 15-20 minutes before separating them, and avoid immediate drinking and 
strenuous exercise.

Choosing the Breeding Method:
Linebreeding: Breeding two dogs from the same ancestor to maintain the excellent qualities of the common ancestor.
Inbreeding: Used for purebred dogs to reduce genetic variation but may increase the risk of genetic diseases.
Crossbreeding: Breeding dogs of different breeds, usually for cultivating new dog breeds.
Assisted breeding: Needed when the dogs are inexperienced or there is a significant size difference.
Artificial insemination: Commonly used in large-scale dog breeding farms, requiring professional
 equipment and techniques.

Preparing the Breeding Environment:
Choose a quiet and clean place for breeding, avoiding unnecessary spectators and noise.
Carefully record the female dog's estrus dates, duration of estrus stages, and mating dates for future reference.

Health and Nutrition:
Male dogs should not mate frequently to avoid affecting their health and shortening their
 breeding lifespan. Adult male dogs can mate once a day, with a rest of 3-4 days between matings.
Female dogs can have two litters a year, but too frequent breeding can affect the health of the mother and puppies. It is recommended to have three litters in two years or one litter a year.
Female dogs over 7 years old and male dogs over 12 years old are generally not suitable for breeding.

Handling Special Situations:
If the dogs encounter issues such as being "stuck" during mating or bleeding, seek the help of a 
professional veterinarian immediately. Do not attempt to handle it yourself to avoid causing further harm.

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