Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ("COPD") is a common chronic respiratory disease in China, characterized by high prevalence, high disability and high mortality rates, long disease cycles, recurrent acute exacerbations and multiple comorbidities, which have a serious impact on patients' health and quality of life, and also bring a heavy burden to society and families.
As a chronic disease, the focus of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is on "maintenance". Early management of chronic disease, reducing the frequency of acute exacerbations, reducing the number of hospitalizations and economic burden are the most important concerns of all patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. How to do it? We have helped you to organize from three aspects.
Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease who experience progressive weight loss can have a death rate of 30% in 3 years and 49% in 5 years. Therefore, it is very important for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease to ensure adequate energy supply, correct malnutrition, and maintain ideal body weight. Diet for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease should be:
1. Adequate energy, daily energy supply up to 1.2-1.3 times that of normal people.
2. Reasonable dietary ratio, the proportion of dietary intake of protein is about 15%-20%, fat is about 20%-30%, and carbohydrate is about 50%-60%.
3. Vitamin supplementation, reasonable supplementation of vitamins and minerals phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, copper, iron, selenium and other essential trace elements and vitamins A, C, E and beta-carotene.
4. Small and frequent meals, 4 to 5 meals per day, 2 to 3 hours between each meal.
5. Oral supplementation, 250 kcal each time (containing 8-15 grams of protein), 2 to 3 times daily
1. Quit smoking: smoking will significantly increase the incidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, is also the most common high-risk factors of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. According to relevant survey data: 80% to 90% of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are smokers, so patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease who smoke should quit smoking as soon as possible.
2. Prevention of respiratory infections, patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease should pay attention to the prevention of cold, flu vaccination in autumn and winter, and avoid going to crowded places; at the same time, keep the air in the living room fresh, and open the windows and doors for ventilation 2-3 times a day.
3. Pulmonary function exercise, through lip reduction breathing and abdominal breathing, can improve the ventilation function, enhance the patient's physical fitness; maintain and increase the mobility of the thorax, strengthen the effective cough, strengthen the respiratory muscles; improve the coordination of breathing.
4. Regular sputum excretion, effective sputum excretion is crucial for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease during the stabilization period. Through effective coughing, postural drainage (e.g. head-low-foot-high position) and vibratory sputum excretion (e.g. hollow fist vibration, sputum expeller), respiratory tract infections can be reduced and respiratory difficulties can be relieved.
Oxygen therapy care
The root cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is: lack of oxygen! All the serious consequences brought about by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are caused by lack of oxygen. It is recommended to have an oxygen machine at home and to follow medical advice for oxygen intake if necessary. Patients are usually asked to take oxygen at low flow rates, 1-2L/min, and can take up to 10-15 hours of oxygen per day.
Oxygen saturation is usually low in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease due to hypoxia. Daily monitoring of the patient's blood oxygen level with an oximeter can detect hypoxia in time to prevent deterioration of the disease. The oximeter can also monitor the effect of using oxygen concentrators and ventilators, and observe whether the oxygen saturation level is improved.