Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is a plasma lipoprotein that transports cholesterol to extrahepatic tissue cells.LDL is formed in plasma from very low-density lipoproteins by hydrolysis of glycerol and fatty acids, transfer of apolipoproteins, and hydrolysis by lipase.The components of LDL are mainly proteins and lipids, with the lipid portion consisting of triglycerides, phospholipids, and cholesterol, with cholesterol accounting for 45% to 50% of the overall content. LDL can be taken up and degraded by the adrenal cortex, liver, testes and other tissues, and the cholesterol it carries can be transported between organs and tissues within the body and play a role.
However, abnormally elevated LDL levels may increase the risk of atherosclerosis, an important factor in cardiovascular disease. Therefore, management of LDL levels is important for the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Some medications, such as PCSK9 inhibitors, can lower LDL levels, while some other lipid-modulating drugs can also help reduce LDL levels. In addition, dietary control and increased exercise are also important in reducing LDL levels.